Angličtina

E-learning jako vzdělávací nástroj školy 3. tisíciletí

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Conjunctions (spojky)

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Unless (pokud ne)

–       sloveso je po této spojce vždy v kladném tvaru. Navíc (stejně jako po časových spojkách) ve smyslu budoucnosti se po ní neužívá will.

There are no buses to the city centre now. Unless you have a car, it´s impossible to get there.

I´ll see you tomorrow unless I have to work late.

–       místo unless je možno použít if … not.

Unless you hurry up, you´ll be late. If you don´t hurry up now, you´ll be late.

 

As long as / So long as (pokud / dokud – časová spojka, tudíž will)

You can borrow my car as long as / so long as you promise not to drive too fast.

As long as you study, we will support you financially.

Provided / Providing (pokud, jestliže, za předpokladu, že – časová spojka, tudíž will)

Provided / Providing the weather is good, we´re going to have a picnic.

As (když / protože, jelikož)

We met Paul as we were leaving the hotel.

As I walked along the street, I looked in the shop windows.

As we were hungry, we decided to find somewhere to eat.

Although / though (spíše v hovorové angličtině, navíc though se užívá často na konci věty, viz poslední ukázková věta), in spite of, despite (pozor – po obou těchto spojkách následuje pouze podstatné jméno nebo zájmeno, ne sloveso, viz příklady) / in spite of the fact (that), despite of the fact (that) (všechny tyto spojky mají význam: ačkoliv, i když, přestože)

Although / Though it rained a lot, we went for a walk.

In spite of rain, we went for a walk.

Despite rain, we went for a walk.

He felt ill, but in spite of this, he went to work.

In spite of the fact (that) it rained a lot, we went for a walk.

Despite the fact (that) it rained a lot, we went for a walk.

I see him everyday. I´ve never spoken to him though.

As if / as though / like (spíše v neformálních větách) – všechny překládáme jako: jakoby

That house looks as if it´s going to fall.

It looks as though they aren´t coming.

It looks like it´s going to rain.

Why do you talk to him as if he was a child? He´s old enough to understand it.

 

Zpracováno s pomocí R. Murphy: English Grammar in Use, third edition, Cambridge University Press 2004

 

Exercise: Translate the following sentences using the correct conjunction:

1.      Vypadá to, jako by nebyli doma.

2.      Včera jsme se dívali celý večer na televizi, protože jsme neměli nic lepšího co dělat.

3.      Neuděláš tu zkoušku, pokud nebudeš studovat.

4.      Zítra budeme hrát tenis, pokud nebude pršet.

5.      Dovolenou jsme si užili, ačkoliv hodně pršelo.

 conjunctions

Solution:

1.      It looks as if they aren´t at home.

2.      Yesterday we watched television as we didn´t have anything better to do.

3.      You won´t pass the exam unless you study. / … if you don´t study.

4.      We´re playing tennis tomorrow unless it rains. / … providing / provided it doesn´t rain.

5.      We enjoyed our holiday although it rained a lot.

 

Navigace: 4. ročník Problem Solving; Giving Advices Conjunctions (spojky)