E-learning jako vzdělávací nástroj školy 3. tisíciletí

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Reading – Borobudur

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record = záznam

peak = vrchol

abandoned = opuštěný

layer = vrstva

reveal = odkrýt, odhalit

prevail = převážit

intact = neporušený


1 Read the article and answer the following questions:

1 Where can we find Borobudur?

2 When was it built?

3 When was it discovered?

4 Why weren´t Europeans firstly interested in it?

5 What is said about UNESCO in the article?

6 What is Borobudur´s role today?


There is no written record of who built Borobudur or why it was built. It was likely founded as a religious site in the 8th century at the peak of the Sailendra dynasty in central Java. The construction is thought to have taken a period of 75 years and completed in about 825 AD.

Borobudur lay abandoned and hidden for centuries under layers of volcanic ash and thick jungle growth. Nobody knows for sure why it was abandoned although the popular theory is that the local population just became disinterested when there were mass conversions to Islam in the 15th century.


Following the Anglo-Dutch Java War, Java briefly was under British administration from 1811 to 1816. The British governor was Thomas Stamford Raffles (the founder of Singapore) and he took a great practical and academic interest in the history of the mystical island of Java. On a tour to Semarang in 1814, he was informed about a huge ‘lost’ monument deep in the jungles near Yogyakarta and he sent a Dutch engineer to investigate. It took 2 months to clear the jungle and partially reveal the amazing monument but it was not until 1835 that the complex was unearthed in its magnificent entirety.

Appreciation and protection was surprisingly slow to develop though and Borobudur became the domain of unscrupulous souvenir hunters. Modern-day archaeologists speculate that this was due to the European obsession with Ancient Egypt at the time – Borobudor was just too remote and too far away to get the attention it undoubtedly deserved. There was even a Dutch proposal to dismantle the monument and scatter it piece by piece to museums around the world. Thankfully, sense prevailed and by the end of the 19th century the site was left largely intact and a minor five year restoration programme was undertaken in 1907.

Modern day Borobudur

In 1973, a major plan to restore Borobudur was created under UNESCO. The unsteady foundations were stabilized, everything was cleaned and a major drainage system installed. After the renovation was finished, UNESCO formally listed Borobudur as a World Heritage Site in 1991. Since then, the profile of Borobudur has increased enormously and it is now a major international tourist attraction.

As well as being the single most popular tourist attraction in modern day Indonesia, Borobudur has resumed its role as an important place of worship and pilgrimage for Indonesian Buddhists. Visitors should be understanding and respectful of this especially during major Buddhist holiday periods.